英文版出處:America.gov
繁中版出處:MMDays

Thank you very much, Alberto, for not only that kind introduction but your and your colleagues’ leadership of this important institution.  It’s a pleasure to be here at the Newseum.  The Newseum is a monument to some of our most precious freedoms, and I’m grateful for this opportunity to discuss how those freedoms apply to the challenges of the 21st century.

非常感謝,艾伯托(Alberto)。不僅要感謝你的讚譽和介紹,而且要感謝你和你的同事們在這個重要機構中發揮的領導作用。很高興來到新聞博物館。這個博物館是一座紀念碑,見證了我們最珍視的一些自由。我十分感謝能有此機會談談如何運用這些自由應對二十一世紀的各項挑戰。


Although I can’t see all of you because in settings like this, the lights are in my eyes and you are in the dark, I know that there are many friends and former colleagues.  I wish to acknowledge Charles Overby, the CEO of Freedom Forum here at the Newseum; Senator Richard Lugar/1 and Senator Joe Lieberman, my former colleagues in the Senate, both of whom worked for passage of the Voice Act, which speaks to Congress’s and the American people’s commitment to internet freedom, a commitment that crosses party lines and branches of government.

雖然我並不能看到你們所有的人——因為在這樣的場合燈光照射我的眼睛,而你們都在背光處——但我知道在座的有很多朋友和老同事。我要感謝自由論壇(Freedom Forum)的首席執行官查爾斯∙奧弗比(Charles Overby)光臨新聞博物館,以及我在參議院時的老同事理查德∙盧格(Richard Lugar)和喬∙利伯曼(Joe Lieberman)兩位參議員,他們兩位都為《表達法》(Voice Act)的通過作出了努力。這項立法表明,美國國會和美國人民不分黨派,不分政府部門,堅定地支持網際網路自由。


Also, I’m told here as well are Senator Sam Brownback, Senator Ted Kaufman, Representative Loretta Sanchez, many representatives of the Diplomatic Corps, ambassadors, chargés, participants in our International Visitor Leadership Program on internet freedom from China, Colombia, Iran, and Lebanon, and Moldova.  And I also want to acknowledge Walter Isaacson, president of the Aspen Institute, recently named to our Broadcasting Board of Governors and, of course, instrumental in supporting the work on internet freedom that the Aspen Institute has been doing.

我聽說在場的還有參議員薩姆∙布朗巴克(Sam Brownback)、參議員特德∙考夫曼(Ted Kaufman)、眾議員洛雷塔∙桑切斯(Loretta Sanchez)、許多大使、臨時代辦和外交使團的其他代表、以及從中國、哥倫比亞、伊朗、黎巴嫩和摩爾多瓦等國前來參加我們關於網際網路自由的「國際訪問者領袖計劃」(International Visitor Leadership Program)的人士。我還要提到最近被任命為廣播理事會(Broadcasting Board of Govenors)理事的阿斯彭研究所(Aspen Institute)所長沃爾特∙艾薩克森( Walter Isaacson)。毫無疑問,他在阿斯彭研究所從事的支持網際網路自由的工作中發揮了重要作用。


This is an important speech on a very important subject.  But before I begin, I want to just speak briefly about Haiti, because during the last eight days, the people of Haiti and the people of the world have joined together to deal with a tragedy of staggering proportions.  Our hemisphere has seen its share of hardship, but there are few precedents for the situation we’re facing in Port-au-Prince.   Communication networks have played a critical role in our response.  They were, of course, decimated and in many places totally destroyed.  And in the hours after the quake, we worked with partners in the private sector; first, to set up the text “HAITI” campaign so that mobile phone users in the United States could donate to relief efforts via text messages.   That initiative has been a showcase for the generosity of the American people, and thus far, it’s raised over $25 million for recovery efforts.

這是關於一個非常重要的議題的一個重要講話。但在開始談這個議題前,我想簡要介紹一下海地的情況。過去八天來,海地人民和世界人民攜手應對一場巨大的災難。我們這個半球曾歷經磨難,但我們目前在太子港面臨的困境鮮有先例。通訊網路在我們抗擊這場災難的過程中發揮了極其重要的作用。不用說,當地的通訊網路遭受了重創,在很多地方被徹底摧毀。地震發生後僅幾個小時,我們就與民營部門的夥伴發起「海地」(HAITI)短信捐款活動,使美國的移動電話使用者能通過發短信向救災工作捐款。這項活動充分展示了美國人民的慷慨。迄今,該活動已為海地的抗震救災籌集了2500多萬美元。


Information networks have also played a critical role on the ground.  When I was with President Preval in Port-au-Prince on Saturday, one of his top priorities was to try to get communication up and going.  The government couldn’t talk to each other, what was left of it, and NGOs, our civilian leadership, our military leadership were severely impacted.  The technology community has set up interactive maps to help us identify needs and target resources.  And on Monday, a seven-year-old girl and two women were pulled from the rubble of a collapsed supermarket by an American search-and-rescue team after they sent a text message calling for help.  Now, these examples are manifestations of a much broader phenomenon.

資訊網路在救災現場也發揮了極其重要的作用。星期六,我在太子港會見普雷瓦爾(Preval)總統時,他的重點目標之一是要努力恢復通訊。倖存的通訊設施不足以幫助當地政府官員相互聯絡,非政府組織以及我們的文職部門和軍隊的領導人的運作能力都受到嚴重影響。高科技公司設立了互動地圖,幫助確定救災需要和目標資源。就在星期一,一名年僅七歲的小女孩和兩名婦女通過發短信呼救被一個美國搜救隊從坍塌的超市的殘磚碎瓦下救了出來。這些事例只是一個普遍現象的縮影。


The spread of information networks is forming a new nervous system for our planet.  When something happens in Haiti or Hunan, the rest of us learn about it in real time – from real people.  And we can respond in real time as well.  Americans eager to help in the aftermath of a disaster and the girl trapped in the supermarket are connected in ways that were not even imagined a year ago, even a generation ago.   That same principle applies to almost all of humanity today.  As we sit here, any of you – or maybe more likely, any of our children – can take out the tools that many carry every day and transmit this discussion to billions across the world.

資訊網路的擴展正在為我們的星球建立一個新的神經系統。在海地或湖南發生什麼情況時,我們其餘的人都能從當事者那裡實時得知。我們還可以實時作出反應。災後迫切希望提供幫助的美國人和被困在超市瓦礫下的小姑娘以一年以前乃至一代人以前還想像不到的方式被聯繫在一起。今天,同樣的原則適用於幾乎整個人類。我們今天坐在這裡,你們中間任何人——或更有可能的是我們孩子中的任何人——都可以拿出很多人每天隨身攜帶的通訊工具,將這次討論的內容發送給全世界數十億人。


Now, in many respects, information has never been so free.  There are more ways to spread more ideas to more people than at any moment in history.  And even in authoritarian countries, information networks are helping people discover new facts and making governments more accountable.

在很多方面,訊息從未像今天這麼自由。與過去任何時候相比,今天都有更多的方式把更多的想法傳播給更多的人。即使在集權國家,資訊網路也在幫助人們發現新的事實,向政府更多地問責。


During his visit to China in November, for example, President Obama held a town hall meeting with an online component to highlight the importance of the internet.  In response to a question that was sent in over the internet, he defended the right of people to freely access information, and said that the more freely information flows, the stronger societies become.  He spoke about how access to information helps citizens hold their own governments accountable, generates new ideas, encourages creativity and entrepreneurship.  The United States belief in that ground truth is what brings me here today.

例如,歐巴馬總統11月訪華期間與當地大學生的直接對話包含了網上提問,突顯了網際網路的重要性。在回答一個網上提問時,他強調人民有權自由獲取訊息。他說,訊息流通越自由,社會就越強健。他談到獲取訊息的權力如何有助於公民向自己的政府問責,激發新的想法,鼓勵創造性和創業精神。我今天來這裡發表講話正是出於美國對這一經過實踐檢驗的真理的信念。


Because amid this unprecedented surge in connectivity, we must also recognize that these technologies are not an unmitigated blessing.  These tools are also being exploited to undermine human progress and political rights.  Just as steel can be used to build hospitals or machine guns, or nuclear power can either energize a city or destroy it, modern information networks and the technologies they support can be harnessed for good or for ill.  The same networks that help organize movements for freedom also enable al-Qaida to spew hatred and incite violence against the innocent.  And technologies with the potential to open up access to government and promote transparency can also be hijacked by governments to crush dissent and deny human rights.

由於人們的相互聯繫空前密切,我們也必須認識到這些新技術並非無條件地造福人類。這些工具也正被用於阻礙人類進步和剝奪政治權利。正如鋼可被用於建造醫院也可用於製造機槍。核能可為城市提供動力也可摧毀城市。現代資訊網路及其支持的技術既可被用於行善也可被用於作惡。有助於組織自由運動的網路也能使「基地」組織得以煽動仇恨,挑起針對無辜者的暴力。具有開放政府訊息和促進透明化潛力的技術也可被政府劫持,用於鎮壓異見,剝奪公民權利。


In the last year, we’ve seen a spike in threats to the free flow of information.  China, Tunisia, and Uzbekistan have stepped up their censorship of the internet.  In Vietnam, access to popular social networking sites has suddenly disappeared.  And last Friday in Egypt, 30 bloggers and activists were detained.  One member of this group, Bassem Samir, who is thankfully no longer in prison, is with us today.  So while it is clear that the spread of these technologies is transforming our world, it is still unclear how that transformation will affect the human rights and the human welfare of the world’s population.

過去一年來,我們看到對資訊自由流通的威脅激增。中國、突尼西亞和烏茲別克斯坦加強了對網際網路的審查。在越南,使用廣受歡迎的社交網站的權利突然消失。上個星期五在埃及,30名博客作者和維權人士被拘留。這批博客作者中的一位是巴塞姆∙薩米爾(Bassem Samir)。他有幸獲釋,今天也在這裡,同我們在一起。因此,一方面,這些技術的推廣明顯地正在改變我們的世界,另一方面,尚無法預知這樣的改變將對世界人民的人權和幸福產生何種影響。


On their own, new technologies do not take sides in the struggle for freedom and progress, but the United States does.  We stand for a single internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas.  And we recognize that the world’s information infrastructure will become what we and others make of it.  Now, this challenge may be new, but our responsibility to help ensure the free exchange of ideas goes back to the birth of our republic.  The words of the First Amendment to our Constitution are carved in 50 tons of Tennessee marble on the front of this building.  And every generation of Americans has worked to protect the values etched in that stone.

這些新技術本身不會在爭取自由與進步的鬥爭中選擇立場。但是,美國要做到立場鮮明。我們支持一個允許全人類平等享有知識和思想的網際網路。而且我們認識到,在世界上建立何種資訊基礎設施將取決於我們和其他人為之確定的性質。雖然這是一個全新的挑戰,但我們確保思想自由交流的責任可追溯至和眾國誕生之初。《憲法》第一修正案的內容字字鐫刻在這座大樓前那塊50噸重的田納西大理石上。世世代代的美國人都為捍 衛刻在那塊石頭上的價值觀付出了努力。


Franklin Roosevelt built on these ideas when he delivered his Four Freedoms speech in 1941.  Now, at the time, Americans faced a cavalcade of crises and a crisis of confidence.  But the vision of a world in which all people enjoyed freedom of expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear transcended the troubles of his day.  And years later, one of my heroes, Eleanor Roosevelt, worked to have these principles adopted as a cornerstone of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  They have provided a lodestar to every succeeding generation, guiding us, galvanizing us, and enabling us to move forward in the face of uncertainty.

富蘭克林•羅斯福(Franklin Roosevelt)在1941年發表「四項自由」演講時發揚了這些思想。當時,美國人面臨著一系列的危機,此外還有信心危機。但是,對一個人人都享有言論表達自由、信仰自由、沒有貧困、沒有恐懼的世界的憧憬衝破了他那個時代的重重困難。多年之後,我的楷模之一艾琳娜•羅斯福(Eleanor Roosevelt)努力使這些原則成為《世界人權宣言》的奠基原則。這些原則成為繼往開來每一代人的北斗,引導我們、鞭策我們、促使我們在險惡的環境中勇於向前。


So as technology hurtles forward, we must think back to that legacy.  We need to synchronize our technological progress with our principles.  In accepting the Nobel Prize, President Obama spoke about the need to build a world in which peace rests on the inherent rights and dignities of every individual.  And in my speech on human rights at Georgetown a few days later, I talked about how we must find ways to make human rights a reality.  Today, we find an urgent need to protect these freedoms on the digital frontiers of the 21st century.

在科學技術飛躍發展的時候,我們必須反思這個傳統。我們需要確保科學技術的進步與我們的原則同步。在接受諾貝爾獎時,歐巴馬總統講到需要建設這樣一個世界,讓和平建立在每一個人固有的權利和尊嚴之上。幾天後在喬治敦大學關於人權的演講中,我表示我們必須探索途徑,把人權變成現實。今天,我們迫切需要在二十一世紀的電子世界中保護這些自由。


There are many other networks in the world.  Some aid in the movement of people or resources, and some facilitate exchanges between individuals with the same work or interests.   But the internet is a network that magnifies the power and potential of all others.  And that’s why we believe it’s critical that its users are assured certain basic freedoms.  Freedom of expression is first among them.  This freedom is no longer defined solely by whether citizens can go into the town square and criticize their government without fear of retribution.  Blogs, emails, social networks, and text messages have opened up new forums for exchanging ideas, and created new targets for censorship.

世界上有許多其他的網路,有些幫助人員或資源的流動,有些輔助志同道合的個人之間的交流。但網際網路是增強所有其他網路的能力和潛力的一個網路,因此,我們認為確保其使用者享有某些基本自由至關重要。其中最重要的是言論表達自由。這種自由的定義不再僅僅是公民前往市政廳前的廣場批評他們的政府,而不擔心遭受報復。博客、電子郵件、社交網路和手機短信開啟了交流思想的新途徑,也為訊息審查帶來了新目標。


As I speak to you today, government censors somewhere are working furiously to erase my words from the records of history.  But history itself has already condemned these tactics.  Two months ago, I was in Germany to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall.  The leaders gathered at that ceremony paid tribute to the courageous men and women on the far side of that barrier who made the case against oppression by circulating small pamphlets called samizdat.  Now, these leaflets questioned the claims and intentions of dictatorships in the Eastern Bloc and many people paid dearly for distributing them.  But their words helped pierce the concrete and concertina wire of the Iron Curtain.

甚至就在我今天向你們講演的此刻,某些地方的政府審查人員正在竭力將我的話語從歷史的記錄中刪除。但歷史早已作出裁決:這些手法注定失敗。兩個月前,我在德國參加了推倒柏林牆20週年紀念活動。參加這次活動的各國領導人向這個屏障對面那些英勇的男女志士表示敬意,他們曾經通過散發被稱為「地下刊物」(Samizdat)的小冊子來闡明反對壓迫的道理。這些傳單對「東方集團」專制政權的宣傳和用心提出了質疑。許多人因散發傳單受到殘酷迫害,但他們的聲音幫助穿透了「鐵幕」的鋼筋水泥和帶刺的鐵絲網。


The Berlin Wall symbolized a world divided and it defined an entire era.  Today, remnants of that wall sit inside this museum where they belong, and the new iconic infrastructure of our age is the internet.  Instead of division, it stands for connection.  But even as networks spread to nations around the globe, virtual walls are cropping up in place of visible walls.

柏林牆象徵著一個分隔的世界,代表一個時代。今天,這堵牆的一些碎片就陳列在這座它們理應歸屬的博物館裡。在我們這個時代,具有代表性的基礎設施就是網際網路。它取代了分隔,象徵著聯繫。但是,就在網路擴展到世界各國的同時,我們發現許多地方以虛擬的牆壁代替了有形的牆壁。


Some countries have erected electronic barriers that prevent their people from accessing portions of the world’s networks.  They’ve expunged words, names, and phrases from search engine results.  They have violated the privacy of citizens who engage in non-violent political speech.  These actions contravene the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, which tells us that all people have the right “to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.”  With the spread of these restrictive practices, a new information curtain is descending across much of the world.  And beyond this partition, viral videos and blog posts are becoming the samizdat of our day.

有些國家豎起了電子屏障,阻止本國人民分享世界上的一部分網路。他們從搜索引擎提供的結果中刪除字詞、名稱和短語。他們侵犯了那些發表非暴力政治言論的人的隱私權。這些做法違反了《世界人權宣言》,因為《宣言》告訴我們,人人都有權通過「各種媒體不受疆界限制地尋求、接收和傳播訊息和思想」。由於這些限制手段的蔓延,一個新的訊息帷幕正在世界上許多地方降臨。為穿越這種阻隔,個人視頻和博客文章正成為當今時代的「地下刊物」。


As in the dictatorships of the past, governments are targeting independent thinkers who use these tools.  In the demonstrations that followed Iran’s presidential elections, grainy cell phone footage of a young woman’s bloody murder provided a digital indictment of the government’s brutality.  We’ve seen reports that when Iranians living overseas posted online criticism of their nation’s leaders, their family members in Iran were singled out for retribution.  And despite an intense campaign of government intimidation, brave citizen journalists in Iran continue using technology to show the world and their fellow citizens what is happening inside their country.  In speaking out on behalf of their own human rights, the Iranian people have inspired the world.  And their courage is redefining how technology is used to spread truth and expose injustice.

正如過去的專制政權一樣,有些政府正在打擊那些利用這些工具的獨立思考者。在伊朗總統大選後的遊行示威期間,用手機拍攝的一位年輕女子遭血腥屠殺的斑駁畫面成為通過數位技術對該政府暴行提出的控訴。我們已看到有報導說,當生活在海外的伊朗人在網上張貼對他們國家領導人的批評時,他們在伊朗的家人便成為報復的目標。儘管政府普遍採取嚴厲的恐嚇手段,但伊朗英勇的公民記者們繼續利用技術向全世界及其同胞報導他們國內發生的事件。伊朗人民為自身的人權吶喊,同時也鼓舞了全世界,他們的勇氣正在重新詮釋如何通過技術傳播真理和揭露非正義現象。


Now, all societies recognize that free expression has its limits.  We do not tolerate those who incite others to violence, such as the agents of al-Qaida who are, at this moment, using the internet to promote the mass murder of innocent people across the world.  And hate speech that targets individuals on the basis of their race, religion, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation is reprehensible.  It is an unfortunate fact that these issues are both growing challenges that the international community must confront together.  And we must also grapple with the issue of anonymous speech.  Those who use the internet to recruit terrorists or distribute stolen intellectual property cannot divorce their online actions from their real world identities.  But these challenges must not become an excuse for governments to systematically violate the rights and privacy of those who use the internet for peaceful political purposes.

所有的社會都承認言論自由有其限度。我們不能容忍煽動他人從事暴力的人,例如此刻正利用網際網路在全世界宣揚大規模屠殺無辜百姓的「基地」組織成員。那些以種族、宗教、族裔、性別或性取向為由攻擊他人的仇恨言論也應受到嚴厲斥責。遺憾的是,這些問題均構成日益嚴重的挑戰,國際社會必須共同進行抗擊。我們還必須解決匿名發表言論的問題。對於那些利用網際網路招收恐怖主義分子或傳播被盜竊的知識產權的人,不能讓他們將其網路行為與其真實身份脫鉤。然而,對於那些為了和平的政治目的利用網際網路的人士,這些並不能成為政府有計劃地侵犯他們的權利和隱私的託辭。


The freedom of expression may be the most obvious freedom to face challenges with the spread of new technologies, but it is not the only one.  The freedom of worship usually involves the rights of individuals to commune or not commune with their Creator.  And that’s one channel of communication that does not rely on technology.  But the freedom of worship also speaks to the universal right to come together with those who share your values and vision for humanity.  In our history, those gatherings often took place in churches, synagogues, mosques and temples.  Today, they may also take place on line.

隨著新技術的傳播,言論自由可能是最明顯會遇到各種挑戰的一項自由權利,但並非僅此而已。信仰自由通常涉及個人與造物主對話或不對話的權利。這是一種不需依賴技術的交流方式。然而,信仰自由還體現了與擁有共同價值觀和人生觀的人一起集會的普遍權利。在我們的歷史中,這類集會常見於教堂、猶太會堂、清真寺和寺廟。今天,這類集會也可能在網上進行。


The internet can help bridge divides between people of different faiths. As the President said in Cairo, freedom of religion is central to the ability of people to live together.  And as we look for ways to expand dialogue, the internet holds out such tremendous promise.  We’ve already begun connecting students in the United States with young people in Muslim communities around the world to discuss global challenges.  And we will continue using this tool to foster discussion between individuals from different religious communities.

網際網路有助於不同信仰的人消除相互間的分歧。正如總統在開羅所說,宗教自由對於人們能否共同生活至關重要。在我們尋求擴大對話之際,網際網路蘊涵著巨大的希望。我們已開始使美國學生與全世界穆斯林社會的年青人為討論全球性挑戰相互聯絡。我們將繼續利用這個工具,支持不同宗教社群的個人相互討論。


Some nations, however, have co-opted the internet as a tool to target and silence people of faith.  Last year, for example, in Saudi Arabia, a man spent months in prison for blogging about Christianity.  And a Harvard study found that the Saudi Government blocked many web pages about Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, and even Islam.  Countries including Vietnam and China employed similar tactics to restrict access to religious information.

然而,某些國家則利用網際網路打擊和壓制宗教人士。例如,去年在沙烏地阿拉伯,一名男子因在博客上刊登介紹基督教的文章,被捕入獄達數月之久。哈佛大學一項調查表明,沙烏地政府封鎖了許多介紹印度教、猶太教、基督教乃至伊斯蘭教的網頁。包括越南和中國在內的一些國家也利用類似手段限制獲得宗教訊息的途徑。


Now, just as these technologies must not be used to punish peaceful political speech, they must also not be used to persecute or silence religious minorities.  Now, prayers will always travel on higher networks.  But connection technologies like the internet and social networking sites should enhance individuals’ ability to worship as they see fit, come together with people of their own faith, and learn more about the beliefs of others.  We must work to advance the freedom of worship online just as we do in other areas of life.

這些技術不得用於懲罰和平的政治言論,同樣也不可用於迫害或壓制宗教少數派。祈禱往往在更高層次的網路進行。然而,網際網路和社交網站等通訊技術應該有助於提高人們根據自己的需要進行祈禱的能力,以及與擁有共同信仰的人集會和更多地瞭解其他人信仰的能力。正如我們促進其他生活領域的自由一樣,我們也必須努力促進在網路上祈禱的自由。


There are, of course, hundreds of millions of people living without the benefits of these technologies.  In our world, as I’ve said many times, talent may be distributed universally, but opportunity is not.  And we know from long experience that promoting social and economic development in countries where people lack access to knowledge, markets, capital, and opportunity can be frustrating and sometimes futile work.  In this context, the internet can serve as a great equalizer.  By providing people with access to knowledge and potential markets, networks can create opportunities where none exist.

當然,還有無數人的生活並沒享受到這些技術帶來的益處。在我們的世界裡,正如我多次指出的,才智有可能普及眾人,但機會並非如此。從長期獲得的經驗來看,我們知道,在人民缺乏途徑獲得知識、市場、資本和機會的國家,要促進社會和經濟發展會十分艱難,有時則徒勞無功。在這種情況下,網際網路可發揮調節器的作用。通過向人們提供獲得知識和潛在市場的途徑,各種網路可為那些缺乏機會的地區創造機會。


Over the last year, I’ve seen this firsthand in Kenya, where farmers have seen their income grow by as much as 30 percent since they started using mobile banking technology; in Bangladesh, where more than 300,000 people have signed up to learn English on their mobile phones; and in Sub-Saharan Africa, where women entrepreneurs use the internet to get access to microcredit loans and connect themselves to global markets.

在過去一年中,我在肯亞親眼目睹了這種情況。那裡的農牧民在開始使用移動銀行技術後,收入提高了多達30%。在孟加拉,30多萬人報名通過手機學習英語。在非洲撒哈拉沙漠以南地區,婦女企業家使用網際網路獲得小型貸款並與全球市場接軌。


Now, these examples of progress can be replicated in the lives of the billion people at the bottom of the world’s economic ladder.  In many cases, the internet, mobile phones, and other connection technologies can do for economic growth what the Green Revolution did for agriculture.  You can now generate significant yields from very modest inputs.  And one World Bank study found that in a typical developing country, a 10 percent increase in the penetration rate for mobile phones led to an almost 1 percent increase in per capita GDP.  To just put this into context, for India, that would translate into almost $10 billion a year.

世界上經濟地位最低的億萬人民有可能在生活中效仿上述取得進步的實例。在很多情況下,網際網路、手機和其他通訊技術能對經濟發展起到綠色革命(Green Revolution)對農業所起的同等作用。現在,小小的投入便能產生巨大效益。世界銀行的一項研究顯示,在一個典型的發展中國家,手機普及率每增加 10%,人均國內生產總值便能增長將近1%。具體而言,如果以印度為例,那將相當於每年近100億美元。


A connection to global information networks is like an on-ramp to modernity.  In the early years of these technologies, many believed that they would divide the world between haves and have-nots.  But that hasn’t happened.  There are 4 billion cell phones in use today.  Many of them are in the hands of market vendors, rickshaw drivers, and others who’ve historically lacked access to education and opportunity.  Information networks have become a great leveler, and we should use them together to help lift people out of poverty and give them a freedom from want.

與全球資訊網路連通就好比踏上了通往現代化的階梯。在這些技術問世的最初幾年,許多人以為它們將在世界上的富人和窮人之間劃出鴻溝,但那種情況並沒有發生。今天共有40億隻手機在使用。手機使用者中有很多是小販、人力車伕和其他歷來缺乏受教育及其他機會的人。資訊網路是實現平等的有力手段,我們應共同使用這些技術幫助人們擺脫貧困,不再有匱乏之虞。


Now, we have every reason to be hopeful about what people can accomplish when they leverage communication networks and connection technologies to achieve progress.  But make no mistake – some are and will continue to use global information networks for darker purposes.  Violent extremists, criminal cartels, sexual predators, and authoritarian governments all seek to exploit these global networks.  Just as terrorists have taken advantage of the openness of our societies to carry out their plots, violent extremists use the internet to radicalize and intimidate.  As we work to advance freedoms, we must also work against those who use communication networks as tools of disruption and fear.

我們完全有理由滿懷希望:當人們充分利用資訊網路和通訊技術時,他們將能取得巨大進步。但毫無疑問,也有些人正在利用全球資訊網路實現其陰暗目的,而且將繼續這樣做。暴力極端主義分子、犯罪集團、性犯罪者和獨裁政府都妄圖對全球網路加以利用。正如恐怖主義分子利用我們社會的開放性趁機實施陰謀,暴力極端主義分子也要利用網際網路進行煽動和恐嚇。當我們努力增進這些自由時,我們也必須打擊妄圖利用通訊網路進行破壞並製造恐懼的人。


Governments and citizens must have confidence that the networks at the core of their national security and economic prosperity are safe and resilient.  Now this is about more than petty hackers who deface websites.  Our ability to bank online, use electronic commerce, and safeguard billions of dollars in intellectual property are all at stake if we cannot rely on the security of our information networks.

各國政府和公民必須保持信心,作為國家安全和經濟繁榮核心環節的網路是安全且有韌性的。這不僅僅是幾個小黑客污損幾個網站的問題,如果我們的資訊網路安全得不到保障,我們的網上銀行業務、電子商務活動以及保護億萬美元知識產權的能力就全都岌岌可危。


Disruptions in these systems demand a coordinated response by all governments, the private sector, and the international community.  We need more tools to help law enforcement agencies cooperate across jurisdictions when criminal hackers and organized crime syndicates attack networks for financial gain.  The same is true when social ills such as child pornography and the exploitation of trafficked women and girls online is there for the world to see and for those who exploit these people to make a profit.  We applaud efforts such as the Council on Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime that facilitate international cooperation in prosecuting such offenses.  And we wish to redouble our efforts.

面對破壞這些系統的活動,各國政府、民營部門和國際社會必須協調一致地採取行動。當黑客犯罪分子和有組織犯罪集團為非法牟利攻擊網路時,我們需要更多的工具幫助執法機構進行跨轄區的合作。兒童色情以及遭到販運的婦女和女童所受的剝削通過網際網路為整個世界所見並為剝削者藉以牟利,對這種社會弊病也應採取同樣的應對措施。歐洲理事會在網路犯罪公約(Convention on Cybercrime)方面的努力及其他方的類似努力促成了對此類犯罪起訴的國際協作,我們對此表示讚賞。我們還希望為此加倍努力。


We have taken steps as a government, and as a Department, to find diplomatic solutions to strengthen global cyber security.  We have a lot of people in the State Department working on this.  They’ve joined together, and we created two years ago an office to coordinate foreign policy in cyberspace.  We’ve worked to address this challenge at the UN and in other multilateral forums and to put cyber security on the world’s agenda.   And President Obama has just appointed a new national cyberspace policy coordinator who will help us work even more closely to ensure that everyone’s networks stay free, secure, and reliable.

我國政府及國務院已經採取措施尋求通過外交方式來加強全球網路安全。國務院有大批人員從事這項工作。有關人員一直在協同努力。我們還在兩年前設立了一個專門協調有關網路的對外政策的辦公室。我們致力於在聯合國和其他多邊論壇應對這一挑戰,並把網路安全問題列入世界性議題。歐巴馬總統剛剛任命了一位新的國家網路政策協調員,來幫助我們更緊密地協調工作,以確保每個人的網路都是自由、安全和可靠的。


States, terrorists, and those who would act as their proxies must know that the United States will protect our networks.  Those who disrupt the free flow of information in our society or any other pose a threat to our economy, our government, and our civil society.  Countries or individuals that engage in cyber attacks should face consequences and international condemnation.  In an internet-connected world, an attack on one nation’s networks can be an attack on all.  And by reinforcing that message, we can create norms of behavior among states and encourage respect for the global networked commons.

某些國家、恐怖主義分子以及他們的代理人必須明白,美國將保護我們的網路系統。那些在我們國家或任何其他國家破壞資訊自由流通的人對我們的經濟、我們的政府和我們的公民社會構成了威脅。從事網路攻擊的國家和個人將承擔後果並受到國際社會的譴責。在一個靠網際網路連通的世界裡,對一個國家的網路的攻擊就是對所有人的攻擊。透過強調這一點,我們可以在國家間建立行為準則,並鼓勵尊重全球網民。


The final freedom, one that was probably inherent in what both President and Mrs. Roosevelt thought about and wrote about all those years ago, is one that flows from the four I’ve already mentioned:  the freedom to connect – the idea that governments should not prevent people from connecting to the internet, to websites, or to each other.  The freedom to connect is like the freedom of assembly, only in cyberspace.  It allows individuals to get online, come together, and hopefully cooperate.  Once you’re on the internet, you don’t need to be a tycoon or a rock star to have a huge impact on society.

最後一項自由或許是羅斯福總統與夫人多年前所思考和論述的自由的必然內含,它源於我前面已提到的四項自由,這就是連接自由:政府不應阻止人民與網際網路、與網站或與彼此連接。連接自由如同集會自由一樣,只不過它是在網路空間。這一自由允許個人上網,聚集,希望還有合作。一旦上網,你不必是大亨或搖滾樂明星便能對社會產生巨大影響。


The largest public response to the terrorist attacks in Mumbai was launched by a 13-year-old boy.  He used social networks to organize blood drives and a massive interfaith book of condolence.  In Colombia, an unemployed engineer brought together more than 12 million people in 190 cities around the world to demonstrate against the FARC terrorist movement.  The protests were the largest antiterrorist demonstrations in history.  And in the weeks that followed, the FARC saw more demobilizations and desertions than it had during a decade of military action.  And in Mexico, a single email from a private citizen who was fed up with drug-related violence snowballed into huge demonstrations in all of the country’s 32 states.  In Mexico City alone, 150,000 people took to the streets in protest.  So the internet can help humanity push back against those who promote violence and crime and extremism.

對孟買恐怖主義襲擊的最大規模的公眾反應是由一位13歲少年發起的。他使用社交網路組織了獻血運動,並建立了一個大型跨宗教信仰的弔唁簿。在哥倫比亞,一位失業的工程師召集起全世界190個城市的1200萬人,向哥倫比亞革命武裝力量(FARC)的恐怖活動發出抗議。這些抗議是歷史上規模最大的反恐怖主義示威活動。在隨後幾個星期中,哥倫比亞革命武裝力量經歷了十年軍事行動中人數最多的棄甲和脫隊事件。在墨西哥,一位對毒品暴力行徑忍無可忍的公民發出的一份電子郵件像滾雪球一般發展成遍及該國所有32個省的大型示威活動。僅在墨西哥城就有15萬人上街抗議。因此,網際網路能有助於人道社會抵制鼓吹暴力、犯罪和極端主義的人。


In Iran and Moldova and other countries, online organizing has been a critical tool for advancing democracy and enabling citizens to protest suspicious election results.  And even in established democracies like the United States, we’ve seen the power of these tools to change history.  Some of you may still remember the 2008 presidential election here.  (Laughter.)

在伊朗、摩爾多瓦以及其他國家,網上的組織動員已成為促進民主、使公民對可疑的選舉結果表達抗議的重要工具。甚至在美國等已建立民主制度的國家,我們也看到這些工具具有改變歷史的力量。你們當中有些人可能還記得這裡2008年的總統選舉。(笑聲)


The freedom to connect to these technologies can help transform societies, but it is also critically important to individuals.  I was recently moved by the story of a doctor – and I won’t tell you what country he was from – who was desperately trying to diagnose his daughter’s rare medical condition.  He consulted with two dozen specialists, but he still didn’t have an answer.  But he finally identified the condition, and found a cure, by using an internet search engine. That’s one of the reasons why unfettered access to search engine technology is so important in individuals’ lives.

與這些技術相連接的自由可以幫助轉變社會,但同時也對個人極其重要。我最近被一位醫生的故事所感動——我不想說出他是哪個國家的人。他千方百計要為女兒的罕見疾病作出診斷。他徵詢了20多位專家的意見,但仍然沒有答案。最後,他是靠網際網路搜索引擎得到了確切的診斷並找到了治療方法。這就是不受限制地使用搜索引擎技術之所以對個人生活如此重要的原因之一。


Now, the principles I’ve outlined today will guide our approach in addressing the issue of internet freedom and the use of these technologies.  And I want to speak about how we apply them in practice.  The United States is committed to devoting the diplomatic, economic, and technological resources necessary to advance these freedoms.  We are a nation made up of immigrants from every country and every interest that spans the globe.  Our foreign policy is premised on the idea that no country more than America stands to benefit when there is cooperation among peoples and states.  And no country shoulders a heavier burden when conflict and misunderstanding drive nations apart.  So we are well placed to seize the opportunities that come with interconnectivity.  And as the birthplace for so many of these technologies, including the internet itself, we have a responsibility to see them used for good.  To do that, we need to develop our capacity for what we call, at the State Department, 21st century statecraft.

我今天概述的這些原則將成為我們對待網際網路自由及其技術使用問題的指導方針。我要談談我們在實踐中是如何應用這些原則的。美國致力於為促進這些自由投入必要的外交、經濟和技術資源。美國是一個由來自各個國家、反映全球各種利益的移民組成的國家。我們的外交政策基於這樣一種理念:當人民之間和國家之間合作時,美國比任何其他國家都受益。當衝突與誤解造成國家間的不合時,美國肩負著比任何國家都更沉重的負擔。因此,我們處於有利位置,可以抓住這些隨相互連接而來的機遇。我們作為如此眾多技術的誕生地,有責任確保它們從善使用。為此,我們需要建立能力,以推行我們在國務院稱之為21世紀外交方略的規劃。


Realigning our policies and our priorities will not be easy.  But adjusting to new technology rarely is.  When the telegraph was introduced, it was a source of great anxiety for many in the diplomatic community, where the prospect of receiving daily instructions from capitals was not entirely welcome.  But just as our diplomats eventually mastered the telegraph, they are doing the same to harness the potential of these new tools as well.

重新調整我們的政策和我們的工作重點並非易事,而適應新技術也鮮有捷徑。當電報技術開始使用時,它給外交界許多人帶來嚴重焦慮,因為天天收到發自華盛頓的指示不是一個百分之百令人歡迎的前景。但正如我們的外交人員最終還是掌握了電報一樣,他們也在為掌握這些新工具的潛力而努力。


And I’m proud that the State Department is already working in more than 40 countries to help individuals silenced by oppressive governments.  We are making this issue a priority at the United Nations as well, and we’re including internet freedom as a component in the first resolution we introduced after returning to the United Nations Human Rights Council.

我引以為豪的是,國務院已經在40多個國家展開努力,幫助那些聲音被壓制性政府扼殺的人。我們也在努力使這個問題成為聯合國的工作重點。我們正在將網際網路自由納入我國重新進入聯合國人權理事會 (United Nations Human Rights Council)後提出的第一項決議案中。


We are also supporting the development of new tools that enable citizens to exercise their rights of free expression by circumventing politically motivated censorship.  We are providing funds to groups around the world to make sure that those tools get to the people who need them in local languages, and with the training they need to access the internet safely.  The United States has been assisting in these efforts for some time, with a focus on implementing these programs as efficiently and effectively as possible.  Both the American people and nations that censor the internet should understand that our government is committed to helping promote internet freedom.

我們還支持開發新工具,使公民能夠避開政治審查而行使其自由表達的權利。我們正在為世界各地的團體和組織提供資金,確保將這些新工具以當地語言版本提供給需要的人,並為他們提供安全上網所需的培訓。美國支持開展這些努力已有一段時間,側重於儘可能切實有效地實施這些項目。美國人民應當知道,對網際網路進行審查的國家也應當明白,我國政 府致力於促進網際網路自由。


We want to put these tools in the hands of people who will use them to advance democracy and human rights, to fight climate change and epidemics, to build global support for President Obama’s goal of a world without nuclear weapons, to encourage sustainable economic development that lifts the people at the bottom up.

我們希望讓人們掌握這些工具,用以增進民主和人權,應對氣候變化和流行病,為實現歐巴馬總統提出的一個沒有核武器的世界的目標爭取全球支持,鼓勵可持續的經濟發展,幫助改善底層人民的生活。


That’s why today I’m announcing that over the next year, we will work with partners in industry, academia, and nongovernmental organizations to establish a standing effort that will harness the power of connection technologies and apply them to our diplomatic goals.  By relying on mobile phones, mapping applications, and other new tools, we can empower citizens and leverage our traditional diplomacy.  We can address deficiencies in the current market for innovation.

因此,我今天宣佈,未來一年中,我們將與實業界、學術界和非政府組織的合作夥伴一道,確立發揮聯網技術威力的長期努力,利用這些技術推進我們的外交目標。我們可以依靠手機、測繪應用軟體和其他新工具來增進公民權能,輔助我們的傳統外交。我們能夠解決目前創新市場存在的缺陷。


Let me give you one example.  Let’s say I want to create a mobile phone application that would allow people to rate government ministries, including ours, on their responsiveness and efficiency and also to ferret out and report corruption.  The hardware required to make this idea work is already in the hands of billions of potential users.  And the software involved would be relatively inexpensive to develop and deploy.

請讓我舉一個例子。假設我想設計一種手機應用軟體,讓人們能夠對包括我國政府在內的各政府部門的責任心和工作效率打分,並能夠發現和報告腐敗行為,實現這一設想所需的硬體已在幾十億潛在用戶的手中,而且所需軟體的開發和應用成本較低。


If people took advantage of this tool, it would help us target our foreign assistance spending, improve lives, and encourage foreign investment in countries with responsible governments.  However, right now, mobile application developers have no financial assistance to pursue that project on their own, and the State Department currently lacks a mechanism to make it happen.  But this initiative should help resolve that problem and provide long-term dividends from modest investments in innovation.  We’re going to work with experts to find the best structure for this venture, and we’ll need the talent and resources of technology companies and nonprofits in order to get the best results most quickly.  So for those of you in the room who have this kind of talent, expertise, please consider yourselves invited to help us.

如果人們利用這項技術,就可以幫助我們有的放矢地使用對外援助經費、改善人民的生活並鼓勵外國投資方對負責任的政府投資。但目前的情況是,移動應用技術開發商尚無資金援助來自行開發這項技術,而國務院現在還缺乏使之成為可能的機制。不過,這項行動應當有助於解決這一問題,並且使小筆創新投資能夠帶來長期回報。我們將與專家共同努力,為這種風險投資項目確定最佳框架。我們還將需要科技公司和非營利機構的人才和資源,才能盡快取得最佳效果。因此,在座各位如有此類才幹和專長,我謹在此邀請你們鼎力相助。


In the meantime, there are companies, individuals, and institutions working on ideas and applications that could already advance our diplomatic and development objectives.  And the State Department will be launching an innovation competition to give this work an immediate boost.  We’ll be asking Americans to send us their best ideas for applications and technologies that help break down language barriers, overcome illiteracy, connect people to the services and information they need.  Microsoft, for example, has already developed a prototype for a digital doctor that could help provide medical care in isolated rural communities.  We want to see more ideas like that.  And we’ll work with the winners of the competition and provide grants to help build their ideas to scale.

與此同時,有些公司、個人和機構正在設計和開發各種已經能夠推進我們的外交和發展目標的創意和應用技術,而國務院將展開一項創新競賽活動,讓這項工作立刻得到推進。我們將邀請美國人提交應用軟體和有關技術的最佳創意,它們應能有助於消除語言障礙、克服文盲侷限、將人們與他們所需要的服務和資訊連通。例如,微軟公司已經開發出網路醫生軟體的原型,以便為偏遠地區提供醫療服務。我們希望看到更多這樣的創意。我們將與競賽獲獎者合作,為幫助他們進一步發展創意提供資金。


Now, these new initiatives will supplement a great deal of important work we’ve already done over this past year.  In the service of our diplomatic and diplomacy objectives, I assembled a talented and experienced team to lead our 21st century statecraft efforts.  This team has traveled the world helping governments and groups leverage the benefits of connection technologies.  They have stood up a Civil Society 2.0 Initiative to help grassroots organizations enter the digital age.  They are putting in place a program in Mexico to help combat drug-related violence by allowing people to make untracked reports to reliable sources to avoid having retribution visited against them.  They brought mobile banking to Afghanistan and are now pursuing the same effort in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  In Pakistan, they created the first-ever social mobile network, called Our Voice, that has already produced tens of millions of messages and connected young Pakistanis who want to stand up to violent extremism.

這些新的計劃將大大充實我們過去一年來的重要工作。為了促進我們的外事和外交目標,我召集了一個有才幹而且經驗豐富的團隊,領導我們就21世紀外交方略展開的努力。這個團隊前往世界各地,協助各國政府和團體善用連接技術的益處。他們發起「公民社會2.0行動」(Civil Society 2.0 Initiative),協助基層組織進入數字時代。他們在墨西哥制定了一個協助打擊毒品暴力的方案,讓民眾向可靠的來源作出不露痕跡的檢舉,以免遭受報復。他們也將移動銀行帶進阿富汗,現在正在剛果民主共和國進行同樣的工作。在巴基斯坦,他們建立了一個首創的移動社交網路,稱為「我們的聲音」(Our Voice)。這個網路已經產生了數千萬條訊息,並將希望抵制暴力極端主義的巴基斯坦年輕人聯繫在一起。


In a short span, we have taken significant strides to translate the promise of these technologies into results that make a difference.  But there is still so much more to be done.  And as we work together with the private sector and foreign governments to deploy the tools of 21st century statecraft, we have to remember our shared responsibility to safeguard the freedoms that I’ve talked about today.  We feel strongly that principles like information freedom aren’t just good policy, not just somehow connected to our national values, but they are universal and they’re also good for business.

在短短時間內,我們已經取得了長足的進展,將這些技術的承諾轉變成深富影響力的結果。可是仍有許多方面尚待努力。在我們和民營部門及外國政府聯手推廣21世紀外交方略的工具時,我們必須謹記彼此都有責任捍衛我在今天所談的自由。我們堅信,資訊自由這樣的原則不僅是良好的政策,也不僅和我們的國家價值觀相連,它還具有普世性,並能產生經濟效益。


To use market terminology, a publicly listed company in Tunisia or Vietnam that operates in an environment of censorship will always trade at a discount relative to an identical firm in a free society.  If corporate decision makers don’t have access to global sources of news and information, investors will have less confidence in their decisions over the long term.  Countries that censor news and information must recognize that from an economic standpoint, there is no distinction between censoring political speech and commercial speech.  If businesses in your nations are denied access to either type of information, it will inevitably impact on growth.

用市場語言來說,一家在突尼西亞或越南的審查環境中運營的上市公司,其交易價格總是低於在自由社會運營的同類公司。如果企業的決策者沒有全球性的新聞和訊息來源,投資者對其決策的信心終將下降。實施新聞和訊息審查的國家必須認識到,從經濟角度而言,審查政治言論和商業言論是沒有區別的。如果貴國的企業無法獲取其中一類訊息,其增長必將受到影響。


Increasingly, U.S. companies are making the issue of internet and information freedom a greater consideration in their business decisions.  I hope that their competitors and foreign governments will pay close attention to this trend.  The most recent situation involving Google has attracted a great deal of interest.  And we look to the Chinese authorities to conduct a thorough review of the cyber intrusions that led Google to make its announcement.  And we also look for that investigation and its results to be transparent.

在制定商業決策時,美國公司日益將網路和資訊自由視為更重要的考量因素。我希望他們的競爭對手和外國政府會密切關注這一趨勢。最近有關谷歌(Google)的情況引起了廣泛的注意。我們希望中國當局對導致谷歌作出日前宣佈的網路攻擊事件進行徹查。我們也希望調查及結果透明。


The internet has already been a source of tremendous progress in China, and it is fabulous.  There are so many people in China now online.  But countries that restrict free access to information or violate the basic rights of internet users risk walling themselves off from the progress of the next century.  Now, the United States and China have different views on this issue, and we intend to address those differences candidly and consistently in the context of our positive, cooperative, and comprehensive relationship.

網際網路已經成為中國取得巨大進步的源泉之一,令人驚嘆。中國現在有如此多的人都在上網。但是,限制自由獲取訊息或侵犯網際網路用戶基本權利的國家面臨著使自己與下一個世紀的進步隔絕的風險。美中兩國對於這個議題的看法不同,我們 希望在兩國積極、合作、全面的關係之下坦誠和持續地處理這些差異。


Now, ultimately, this issue isn’t just about information freedom; it is about what kind of world we want and what kind of world we will inhabit.  It’s about whether we live on a planet with one internet, one global community, and a common body of knowledge that benefits and unites us all, or a fragmented planet in which access to information and opportunity is dependent on where you live and the whims of censors.

這個議題不僅關係到資訊自由,最終還關係到我們希望有一個什麼樣的世界以及我們將會生活於一個什麼樣的世界。它關係到我們生活的地球是有一個網際網路、一個全球社會以及一個造福並聯繫全人類的共同知識體,還是支離破碎、獲取訊息和機遇要取決於居住地點和審查者的心血來潮。


Information freedom supports the peace and security that provides a foundation for global progress.  Historically, asymmetrical access to information is one of the leading causes of interstate conflict.  When we face serious disputes or dangerous incidents, it’s critical that people on both sides of the problem have access to the same set of facts and opinions.

資訊自由有助於維護作為全球進步基礎的和平與安全。從歷史上看,不對稱的訊息獲取能力是國家間衝突的主要原因之一。在我們面對嚴重糾紛或危險事件時,當事雙方能夠瞭解相同的事實和觀點是至關重要的。


As it stands, Americans can consider information presented by foreign governments.  We do not block your attempts to communicate with the people in the United States.  But citizens in societies that practice censorship lack exposure to outside views.  In North Korea, for example, the government has tried to completely isolate its citizens from outside opinions.  This lopsided access to information increases both the likelihood of conflict and the probability that small disagreements could escalate.  So I hope that responsible governments with an interest in global stability will work with us to address such imbalances.

目前的情況是,美國人民可以思考外國政府提供的訊息——對於這些政府向美國國內傳送訊息,我們不設置障礙。但是,在實行訊息檢查的社會中生活的公民卻無從得知外界的看法。例如在北韓,政府極力使其公民與外部意見完全隔絕。這種訊息流通的不對稱不但增加了發生衝突的可能性,也容易使微小的分歧升級。因此,我期待那些希望看到全球穩定的負責政府能和我們攜手合作,改變這種不對稱的情況。


For companies, this issue is about more than claiming the moral high ground.  It really comes down to the trust between firms and their customers.  Consumers everywhere want to have confidence that the internet companies they rely on will provide comprehensive search results and act as responsible stewards of their own personal information.  Firms that earn that confidence of those countries and basically provide that kind of service will prosper in the global marketplace.  I really believe that those who lose that confidence of their customers will eventually lose customers.  No matter where you live, people want to believe that what they put into the internet is not going to be used against them.

對公司而言,這個問題所關係的不僅是道德威望,而且涉及公司與用戶之間的信任。世界各地的用戶都希望自己所依賴的網際網路公司會提供全面的搜索結果,並且以負責任的態度守護他們的個人訊息。獲得這種信賴並且基本上提供這種服務的公司將在全球市場蓬勃發展。我確實相信,那些失去用戶信賴的公司,最終將失去用戶。住在任何地方的人都希望知道,他們放在網上的東西不會 被用來加害於自己。


And censorship should not be in any way accepted by any company from anywhere.  And in America, American companies need to make a principled stand.  This needs to be part of our national brand.  I’m confident that consumers worldwide will reward companies that follow those principles.

審查不應被世界任何地方的任何公司以任何形式接受。在美國,美國公司需要採取有原則的立場。這應該成為我們國家品牌的組成部分。我相信全世界的用戶都會回報尊重這些原則的公司。


Now, we are reinvigorating the Global Internet Freedom Task Force as a forum for addressing threats to internet freedom around the world, and we are urging U.S. media companies to take a proactive role in challenging foreign governments’ demands for censorship and surveillance.  The private sector has a shared responsibility to help safeguard free expression.  And when their business dealings threaten to undermine this freedom, they need to consider what’s right, not simply what’s a quick profit.

我們正在重振「全球網際網路自由小組」(Global Internet Freedom Task Force),作為應對全球網路自由所受威脅的論壇。我們敦促美國媒體公司主動採取措施,質疑外國政府對於審查和監視的要求。民營部門也有責任協助保護言論表達自由。當他們的業務交易有可能破壞這種自由時,他們需要考慮什麼是正確的,而不只是尋求短視的利潤。


We’re also encouraged by the work that’s being done through the Global Network Initiative, a voluntary effort by technology companies who are working with nongovernmental organizations, academic experts, and social investment funds to respond to government requests for censorship.  The initiative goes beyond mere statements of principles and establishes mechanisms to promote real accountability and transparency.  As part of our commitment to support responsible private sector engagement on information freedom, the State Department will be convening a high-level meeting next month co-chaired by Under Secretaries Robert Hormats and Maria Otero to bring together firms that provide network services for talks about internet freedom, because we want to have a partnership in addressing this 21st century challenge.

我們對於目前通過「全球網路倡議」(Global Network Initiative)所做的工作倍感鼓舞。「全球網路倡議」是一項由高科技公司與非政府組織、學術專家和社會投資基金共同合作,回應政府審查要求而做出的自願努力。這項倡議不僅僅是申明原則,更是建立旨在宣揚真正責任感和透明度的機制。我們承諾支持負責任的民營部門參與護衛資訊自由,作為我們承諾的組成部分,國務院將在下月召集一次高層會議,由羅伯特•霍馬茨(Robert Hormats)和瑪麗亞•奧特羅(Maria Otero)兩位副國務卿共同主持。會議將召集提供網路服務的公司,共同討論網際網路自由問題,因為我們希望與合作夥伴共同應對這個二十一世紀的挑戰。


Now, pursuing the freedoms I’ve talked about today is, I believe, the right thing to do.  But I also believe it’s the smart thing to do.  By advancing this agenda, we align our principles, our economic goals, and our strategic priorities.  We need to work toward a world in which access to networks and information brings people closer together and expands the definition of the global community.  Given the magnitude of the challenges we’re facing, we need people around the world to pool their knowledge and creativity to help rebuild the global economy, to protect our environment, to defeat violent extremism, and build a future in which every human being can live up to and realize his or her God-given potential.

我相信,追求我今天所說的自由是正確之舉,但它也是智慧之舉。通過推進這個議程,我們將使我們的原則、我們的經濟目標以及我們的戰略重點一致起來。我們需要努力創建這樣一個世界:在這個世界中,網路和訊息使人民之間的關係更加密切,也使我們的全球社區概唸得到擴展。鑑於我們面臨的諸多巨大挑戰,我們需要世界各地的人民匯合他們的知識和創造力,幫助重建全球經濟,保護我們的環境,戰勝暴力極端主義,建設每一個人都能充分發揮和實現其天賦潛力的未來。


So let me close by asking you to remember the little girl who was pulled from the rubble on Monday in Port-au-Prince.  She’s alive, she was reunited with her family, she will have the chance to grow up because these networks took a voice that was buried and spread it to the world.  No nation, no group, no individual should stay buried in the rubble of oppression.  We cannot stand by while people are separated from the human family by walls of censorship.  And we cannot be silent about these issues simply because we cannot hear the cries.

在結束今天的講話時,我要請你們記住星期一在太子港的廢墟中獲救的那個小女孩。她還活著,已經與她的家人團聚,並將有機會長大成人,因為網路把一個被埋得很深的聲音傳播到全世界。我們不能容許任何國家、群體或個人繼續被埋在壓制的廢墟之下。當層層審查牆把一些人與人類大家庭隔離開來的時候,我們不能袖手旁觀。我們不能因為聽不到那些人的呼喊就對這些問題保持沉默。


So let us recommit ourselves to this cause.  Let us make these technologies a force for real progress the world over.  And let us go forward together to champion these freedoms for our time, for our young people who deserve every opportunity we can give them.

因此,讓我們重新作出承諾,為這一事業而努力。讓我們把這些高科技化作推動全世界取得切實進步的力量。讓我們並肩前進,倡導這些自由——為了我們這個時代,也為了應當得到我們所能給予的每一個機會的年輕人。


Thank you all very much.  (Applause.)

非常感謝你們。(掌聲)


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